Kestenberg Siegal Lipkus LLP
Fighting counterfeiting in Canada involves the following legislation:
- the Trademarks Act (RSC 1985, c T-13);
- the Copyright Act (RSC 1985, c C-42, as amended); and
- the Criminal Code (RSC 1985, c C-46).
United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement
On 1 October 2018 Canada, Mexico and the United States announced a new trade agreement to replace the North American Free Trade Agreement (USMCA). Article 20.J.6 states that each country’s competent authority will be given authority to initiate border measures against suspected counterfeit trademark goods that are imported, destined for export, in transit or admitted into or exiting from a free trade zone or bonded warehouse. Competent authorities are defined in the USMCA to include appropriate judicial, administrative or law enforcement authority. At a minimum, the USMCA will necessitate a legislative amendment to remove the exception for in-transit goods from Sections 51.03(2)(d) of the Trademarks Act.
The USMCA still needs to be brought forward, debated and ratified by Parliament before Canada adopts this change.
Update on border enforcement
Between 1 January 2015 and 31 December 2018 the Canada Border Services Agency (Customs) accepted 248 requests for assistance from rights holders, including 86 copyrights and 3,204 trademarks. Customs encountered 73 shipments and contacted 60 rights holders with filed requests for assistance. Thirty-three rights holders pursued a civil remedy, resulting in:
- 14 out-of-court settlements;
- three successful lawsuits;
- five abandonment of the goods by the importer; and
- 11 pending cases.
Customs has ex officio powers to detain suspected shipments of counterfeit products. Rights holders can file a request for assistance that is valid for two years. Rights holders can deposit copyright or trademark particulars with Customs. This will enable Customs to provide them with notice and enable rights holders to pursue a civil remedy in court.
If a request for assistance is filed, Customs is empowered to detain goods suspected to infringe copyrights or trademarks, and share information with rights holders to give them an opportunity to pursue a remedy in court. Detention by Customs cannot exceed 10 working days (subject to a further 10 working days (five for perishable goods) on request of the rights holder). If the goods are counterfeit, the rights holder must use this detention period to commence proceedings in court against the importer and seek an order for seizure and destruction of the counterfeit merchandise. The rights holder is responsible for any applicable storage, handling and destruction charges of any detained goods. Customs has no authority to seize or destroy counterfeit merchandise on its own. Permitted disclosure by Customs to the rights holder includes providing a sample of the goods and information about the goods that could assist them in pursuing a remedy. Limitations restrict the use of that information for any purpose other than to determine whether the import or export of the goods is an infringement or to pursue civil proceedings in court or for the purpose of reaching an out-of-court settlement.
If the rights holder commences proceedings, substantive remedies – both equitable and statutory – are available under the Trademarks Act and the Copyright Act, including declaratory relief, injunctive relief, mandatory relief (ie, forfeiture and destruction) damages and costs. Statutory damages are available only under the Copyright Act.
The framework for how Customs deals with counterfeit trademark goods or pirated copyright goods is set out in the D-Memorandum (D-19-4-3). Paragraph 18 compels the rights holder to respond to Customs within three business days of first contact by Customs and state whether it intends to pursue a remedy. This creates a three-day pre-notice and a subsequent 10-day notice regime (the former of which was not contemplated by the legislation). Within that three-day pre-notice period, and at the discretion of Customs, no information is provided about the owner, importer, exporter and/or consignee – only pictures and quantities of the suspect shipment are disclosed.
Notwithstanding that the legislation permits Customs to exercise discretion when contacting registered rights holders to initiate inquiries as to the authenticity of goods at the border, in practice, Customs does not exercise that discretion unless the registered rights holder has filed a request for assistance.
Customs has implemented a hotline known as the Border Watch Line (1-888-502-9060), whereby interested persons within North America can contact Customs and provide information on shipments of dangerous counterfeit or pirated goods destined for Canada that represent a health, safety or security threat (see Customs Notice 17.2, published 13 September 2017).
Enforcement in practice
The majority of the shipments detained by Customs were imported into Canada through British Columbia, destined for importers located in Ontario and Quebec. Following delivery of cease and desist letters, the majority of detainments resulted in out-of-court settlements, whereby the importer agrees to abandon the shipment and pay for the cost of storage, cartage and destruction.
As expected, several importers of counterfeit goods use techniques to avoid detection, including providing false contact information.
Product counterfeiting typically involves a violation of trademark rights or copyright.
The Combating Counterfeit Products Act includes an offence provision in the Trademarks Act, which states: “51.01(1) Every person commits an offence who sells or offers for sale, or distributes on a commercial scale any goods in association with a trademark if that sale or distribution is or would be contrary to section 19 or 20 and that person knows that; (a) The trademark is identical to or cannot be distinguished in its essential aspects from a trademark registered for such goods; and (b) The owner of that registered trademark has not consented to the sale, offering for sale or distribution of the goods in association with the trademark.”
The offence, on a substantially similar basis, extends to the manufacture, possession, import, export or attempted export of goods and labels on a commercial scale; and to the advertisement of service in association with a trademark, all without the owner’s consent.
The Criminal Code also contains offences relating to forgery of a trademark, fraud, passing off goods as those of another, and making use, in association with goods, of a description that is false in a material respect regarding certain enumerated items like quality, mode of manufacture and geographical origin, among others.
Criminal prosecutions in Canada require proof, beyond reasonable doubt, of the act itself (actus reus) and subjective knowledge (mens rea) of the prohibited act to secure a conviction.
Courts have found that mens rea can be proved by circumstantial evidence, such as prior civil lawsuits or judgments of infringement or possession of previously delivered cease and desist letters from rights holders.
The Copyright Act provides for penalties for infringement (Section 42(1)), including fines of up to C$1 million, imprisonment for up to five years or both. Criminal Code provisions on fraud, passing off or forgery involving a trademark include fines of up to C$10,000 and/or imprisonment for up to two years.
Although imprisonment is an available punishment for copyright or trademark offences, courts and prosecutors rarely impose or recommend jail time. The fines imposed tend to be at the low end of the spectrum.
When imposing penalties for copyright or trademark offences, courts apply statutory principles of sentencing. The fundamental purpose of sentencing is to contribute, along with crime prevention initiatives, to respect for the law and maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society by imposing just penalties that have one or more of the following objectives:
- to denounce unlawful conduct;
- to deter the offender and other persons from committing offences;
- to separate offenders from society where necessary;
- to assist in rehabilitating offenders;
- to provide reparations for harm done to victims or the community; and
- to promote a sense of responsibility in offenders and acknowledgment of the harm done to victims and the community.
A sentence must be proportionate to the gravity of the offence and the degree of responsibility of the offender.
Consumer Product Safety Act
The Consumer Product Safety Act prohibits the manufacture, import, sale or advertisement of consumer products that could pose an unreasonable danger to the health or safety of Canadians. Other prohibitions relate to the packaging, labelling or advertisement of a consumer product in a manner that is false, misleading or deceptive in respect of its safety. For example, the unauthorised use of certification marks is prohibited. The prohibitions and powers in the act, including a right of recall, may prove to be useful tools in the fight against counterfeit consumer products, provided that the consumer product poses a danger to human health or safety.
Civil remedies are the most commonly employed means to address counterfeiting issues. The framework for civil actions is primarily statutory – the Trademarks Act and the Copyright Act. While there are common law prohibitions against the passing off of registered or unregistered trademarks, Section 7 of the Trademarks Act embodies the substance of common law passing off and is most frequently used. Actions commenced for infringement under these statutes may be brought in a provincial court or in the Federal Court. The applicable statutes include the following remedies:
- preservation orders;
- accounting of profits;
- destruction of infringing goods;
- punitive damages; and
- recovery of a portion of legal costs.
The Combating Counterfeit Products Act amended the Trademarks Act to expand the rights conferred by registration to include the right to preclude others from manufacturing, possessing, importing, exporting or attempting to export any goods, labels or packaging for the purpose of their sale or distribution if:
- they are identical or confusingly similar to a trademark registered for such goods;
- the owner of that registered trademark has not consented to have the goods, labels or packaging bear the trademark; and
- the sale or distribution of the goods would be contrary to the Trademarks Act.
Under the Trademarks Act, damages and accounting for profits are alternative remedies. Under the Copyright Act, damages and disgorgement of the infringer’s profits are both recoverable. It also provides the option of electing statutory damages per copyright infringed, while the Trademarks Act lacks statutory damage provisions.
The Federal Courts Rules expressly provide for the preservation of the subject matter of litigation. Typically, motions for preservation are brought on notice to the alleged infringer and, if successful, an order is issued requiring the alleged infringer to deliver up the subject merchandise pending the final outcome of the lawsuit.
An Anton Piller order (typically granted ex parte) orders the party served to deliver up the goods alleged to be counterfeit for preservation pending determination of the lawsuit. While refusal potentially subjects a party to contempt of court proceedings, compliance is nevertheless voluntary and parties executing Anton Piller orders cannot breach the peace if the party served refuses to cooperate. An independent supervising solicitor, who does not represent the rights holder, supervises the execution of Anton Piller orders and must fully explain the terms of the order, supervise any permitted searches of the subject premises and ensure that any potential privileged documents are preserved in a manner that allows the party served to assert privilege before they are disclosed. Law enforcement typically attends to keep the peace and to assure the party served that the process is legitimate.
Canadian courts have issued rolling Anton Piller orders in John Doe and Jane Doe actions, in which the identities of the infringers are not yet ascertained. Following execution of a rolling Anton Piller order, the courts have an established mechanism for reviewing execution of the service and adding the party served as a named party defendant.
Civil remedies for trademark and copyright infringement have the potential for greater damages than have been awarded as fines in the criminal context. However, where counterfeiters fail to keep business records, ascertaining appropriate damages or quantification of profits is difficult. In such circumstances, the Federal Court has established minimum compensatory damage awards for trademark counterfeiting. Where no documents are delivered up by the defendant to quantify sales, profits and/or damages, the court regularly awards damages to successful litigants using a defined scale of damages, depending on the nature of the business (eg, itinerant vendor, fixed retail and wholesaler or importer). Minimum compensatory damages have been awarded on a ‘per instance of infringement’ basis or on a ‘per inventory turnover’ basis.
The Copyright Act:
- prohibits circumvention of technological protection measures (Section 41.1);
- prohibits the manufacture, import and sale of technologies, devices and services designed primarily for the purpose of breaking digital locks (Section 41.1);
- defines ‘infringement’ to include services which primarily enable acts of copyright infringement by means of the Internet or other digital networks (enumerating the factors to consider); and
- sets statutory damages (C$500 to C$20,000 for commercial infringements and C$100 to C$5,000 for non-commercial infringements).
Proportionality and the infringer’s good or bad faith are two of four enumerated factors to be considered (Section 38.1).
Canada’s ‘notice and notice’ regime does not require internet service providers (ISPs) to take an affirmative step to remove a copyrighted work. ISPs and search engines will be exempt from liability when they act strictly as true intermediaries in communication, caching and/or hosting services. The text of the USMCA permits Canada to maintain the current ‘notice and notice’ regime and exempts Canada from the obligation to comply with the legal remedies or safe harbour provisions of the USMCA.
The Copyright Act also enumerates exceptions to infringement in respect of the following categories of non-commercial activity:
- Format shift – copying content from one device to another. This provision does not apply to content protected by a digital lock or other technological protection measures (Section 29.22).
- Time shift – recording television, radio and internet broadcasts and listening to or watching them later. This provision does not apply to on-demand, streamed content or content protected by a digital lock or other technological protection measures (Section 29.23).
- Mash-up – incorporating legally acquired copyrighted content into user-generated work. This provision is applicable only in the event that the mash-up is not a substitute for the original material, has not been created for commercial gain and does not have a substantial negative impact on the markets for the copyrighted work or creator’s reputation. An example is posting a combination of a Jay-Z rap with a Beatles song on a social networking website, provided that the user-generated work is not subject to the exceptions listed above (Section 29.21).
Apart from the Copyright Act, Canada has no specific legislation addressing the online sale of counterfeit goods. Instead, traditional methods are used. For example, copyright owners alleging infringement against unidentified BitTorrent users have advanced motions to compel third-party discovery of the ISP, requesting the handover of subscriber information.
In additional, rights owners submit takedown requests directly to the ISP, registrar, third-party marketplace or social media platform in an effort to remove the counterfeit goods.
Payment processing – the Canadian Anti-fraud Centre
The Canadian Anti-fraud Centre (CAFC) is jointly managed by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Ontario Provincial Police and the Competition Bureau, and one of its mandates includes the illegal sale of online counterfeit goods. Canadian victims that purchase counterfeit merchandise are encouraged to contact their credit-card issuing bank and request a refund under their counterfeit protection policy. The chargebacks (ie, refunds to the victim) help to identify and close counterfeit merchant accounts at banks and payment processors worldwide. In 2018 the CAFC received more than 12,000 complaints of cyber-related fraud, and estimated over $4 million recovered for victims.
In addition, a rights holder can file a complaint pursuant to the Canadian Internet Registration Authority Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (with either Resolution Canada Inc or the British Columbia International Commercial Arbitration Centre) against the registrant of a domain name if:
- the rights holder can prove its rights in the trademark;
- the registrant has no legitimate interest in the domain name; and
- the domain name was registered in bad faith.
Canada has no national IP law enforcement coordination body. The primary responsibility for battling counterfeit products lies with rights holders, which must take steps to protect and enforce their rights through comprehensive licensing arrangements, diligent civil enforcement and training of and cooperation with law enforcement and customs authorities.
2019 and beyond
Many in the brand protection field feel that Canada needs to address the methods used in its anti-counterfeiting and anti-piracy regime to enable it to effectively work towards achieving real anti-counterfeiting and anti-piracy results. The detention of fewer than 20 importations into Canada per year, on average, since the inception of the newest legislation is considered by many to not even scratch the surface of the problem. To date, more than 250 rights holders have filed their requests for assistance and eagerly await an increase in detentions by the Canada Border Services Agency.
In spite of the low number of detentions, participation in Canada’s IP border enforcement regime is the rights holder’s best first step towards protecting trademark rights in Canada.